What are the common types of halogen-free flame retardants?

Flame retardant materials developed based on green chemistry and technology are called halogen-free flame retardants, also known as clean flame retardant materials or ecological flame retardant materials. Narrowly speaking, halogen-free flame retardants refer to flame retardants that use halogen-free flame retardants. According to foreign scholars, halogen-free flame retardant technology is based on green chemistry and flame retardant technology. By selecting raw materials, flame retardant materials, finished product design, manufacturing processes, and waste disposal, we attempt to use renewable resources that are friendly to humans and the environment. Alternatively, recyclable materials can be used to produce flame retardant materials at low resource and environmental costs, provided that these materials ensure sufficient fire safety. Here are some common types of halogen-free flame retardants:
1. Intumescent halogen-free flame retardants: These flame retardants mainly work through condensation phase. At lower temperatures, acid sources generate esterified polyols (carbon sources) and acids that can be used as dehydrating agents; At slightly higher temperatures, acids and polyols (carbon sources) undergo esterification reactions, and amines in the system act as catalysts to accelerate the reaction.
2. Inorganic halogen-free flame retardants: Inorganic flame retardants are mainly composed of aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide. This type of flame retardant has many advantages, but it also has a disadvantage, which is the large amount added, which can affect the performance of the product.
3. Nitrogen halogen-free flame retardants: Nitrogen flame retardants are melamine and its compounds with phosphorus, mainly melamine, melamine cyanuric acid, and melamine phosphate. Nitrogen flame retardants have many advantages: high flame retardancy; Halogen free; No corrosion, thereby reducing mechanical corrosion issues; UV resistance; Good electrical performance has obvious advantages in electronic and electrical products, with no fading or frost, and it can be recycled.
4. Phosphorus free and halogen-free flame retardants: This series of flame retardants includes various types, such as red phosphorus masterbatch, resorcinol bis, etc. The red phosphorus masterbatch has low smoke content and high flame retardant efficiency; No dust pollution, excellent processing performance; Low density, good thermal stability, and minimal decrease in physical properties of the product; During the processing, the mold should be free from frost, migration, and corrosion. Resorcinol bisphenol has the characteristics of high flame retardancy and low addition, and has little impact on the physical properties of the finished product.
5. Environmentally friendly brominated halogen-free flame retardants: These flame retardants include decabromodiphenylethane, brominated epoxy resin, and brominated polystyrene. Decabromodiphenylethane does not produce PBDD or PBDF during combustion. It has good thermal stability and light resistance. More valuable is that its flame retardant plastic can also be recycled. Brominated epoxy resin, also known as tetrabromobisphenol A epoxy resin oligomers. Brominated epoxy resin has satisfactory melt flow rate, high flame retardant efficiency, excellent thermal stability and photostability, and can endow flame retardant substrates with good mechanical properties, so the product will not frost. Brominated polystyrene is mainly used in thermoplastic resins such as PA, PBT, PET, etc. It needs to be used together with antimony compounds.

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